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Part 2: Non-ferrous Alloys - Light Metals. Further details on the presence and development of these factors in the countries under focus are provided in the manuscript. Bolinger points out that less favourable framework conditions exist in the US as federal support for wind power consist mainly of tax incentives that are only attractive for commercial players. However, at the level of individual states Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, Massachusetts there has been an effort to enable community wind, e. These ownership structures are designed to allow for making use of the federal tax incentives while allowing for a considerable extent of local ownership.
They argue that facilitating local ownership and institutionalising participation in project planning can be beneficial for the implementation process and conclude that this has worked better in NRW than in the Netherlands and England. The comparative analysis of the process of institutional capacity building in the countries under focus looks at developments in three relevant policy domains energy policy, spatial planning and environmental policy and at the formation of a policy community for wind power e. In contrast, in the Netherlands and England policies have favoured large players such as utilities.
However they also point to the emergence of opposition in recent years due to the prioritising of wind turbines in spatial planning. In England and the Netherlands the early policy focus on large-scale applications was less successful. In NRW inclusive approaches only resulted from the types of projects realised. They point out that the quantity of wind resources is not a sufficient explanatory factor for differences in the amount of installed capacity in the countries under focus and discuss four institutional variables that are found to be relevant.
Next to planning systems, systems of financial support and landscape protection organizations this also includes local ownership patterns. With respect to systems of financial support Toke et al. Furthermore, they point out that the design of financial incentive structures affects the degree to which grassroots initiatives can also be supported discussion of feed-in vs. In terms of local ownership structures Toke et al. They relate this to the existence of a tradition of energy activism and the anti-nuclear movement. Furthermore, the authors point out that wind power deployment has not been impeded by a lack of local ownership in Spain, as anti-wind farm networks and concerns over landscape protection are much weaker.
However, for the UK they conclude that local ownership of wind power could be conducive to public acceptance of wind power.
Markard and Petersen analysing ownership structures in offshore wind power for Denmark, the UK and Germany, point out that electric utility companies as well as companies from the oil and gas industry dominate the scene while small investors only play a minor role. They note that this ownership pattern can be found irrespective of ownership patterns in onshore wind in the respective counties. They attribute this to specific technological characteristics of offshore wind larger wind parks and correspondingly higher capital costs and also higher risks but also to regulation effects favouring particular investors.
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Olesen et al. Also insurance against lower electricity production of wind turbines is available from some insurance companies. The authors view this as a success for spatial planning but also point out that it has created more local opposition because it is now easier for professional investors to be involved. Miles and Odell provide further details of spatial planning issues in Denmark in relation to wind power. The following box not only summarises the most important conditions mentioned above, but also includes relevant points from Agterbosch et al.
Indeed, some authors have pointed out that regulatory frameworks for wind power do not provide a neutral playing field for different actors but also influence the installation capacity of different players Agterbosch et al. Apart from feed-in regulations, contributions towards this goal can also come from preferential conditions for the availability of loans and insurances Olesen et al.
Furthermore Enzensberger et al. There are some indications based on experiences from Denmark and Germany that supporting wind power development via preferential spatial planning rules e. The authors point to previous arguments in the literature conceiving of trust as both, a necessary characteristic and a potential outcome of cooperative behaviour. Furthermore, they note that in the case of community energy projects it has also been argued that they can enhance wider societal trust in renewable energy technologies. While the empirical work case studies conducted by Walker et al.
As they point out, communities can also be exclusionary, or can change and fracture over the course of time. The empirical material is derived from six community energy projects in the UK. Quite different levels of trust in project organisers can be found in the six case studies. Contrasting characteristics that may account for these outcomes to a certain extent include the implementation of unobtrusive vs. The idea for the project was triggered by a LA 21 process conducted by the local authority and taken up and pursued further by a committed group of interested individuals.
The author therefore sees a need to actively seek appropriate support and make acceptable compromise rather than respond to inappropriate offers. Recommendations on how external organizations can support community groups include support in access to relevant information, training, logistical support, support in developing funding strategy etc. Rakos , describing the introduction of biomass district heating systems in Austria to a large extent owned by agricultural cooperatives notes that the success of this technology diffusion process was based on a bottom-up movement, but that also conflicts at the local level occurred during the implementation process.
As he points out, public perception was particularly critical in order to gain sufficient customers. A survey revealed that the main reasons for residents to connect to biomass district heating systems were environmental protection, enhanced heating comfort but also support of local farmers. They were established at the agricultural chamber, within state-administration, within existing energy agencies or independently. However, consultants were only trained in technical and economic issues and were not able to give appropriate advice on local conflicts.
Nevertheless, Rakos concludes that the community aspect has been an important driver of biomass district heating network projects and also an opportunity to enhance community cohesion. Weiss , also describing the diffusion of biomass district heating systems in Austria points to the importance of convincing the mayor and the local council of a biomass district heating network project, as public buildings typically were needed to ensure a sufficiently large base-load demand.
Furthermore, he also emphasises the importance of public relations in order to acquire businesses and households as further clients of the plant. Weiss also notes that sometimes farmers were not viewed as competent and could only acquire customers by cooperating with the regional utility company.
Nevertheless, the study points to important aspects for cooperative activity at the local level that can also be of interest when investigating energy cooperatives. The authors also highlight various problems and conflicts that might emerge over the issue of control. Furthermore, PCPs may become regarded as associated with a particular political party, which can hamper interest in participation on the side of citizens. The authors also discuss the importance of social capital for the realisation of PCPs. They also note that the existence of a variety of associations in a community is beneficial for the realisation of PCPs.
Nevertheless, trust between local residents cannot be assumed as given. It may depend on factors such as the distribution of profits within the community, the obtrusiveness of the technology involved but also on previous conflicts or animosities within the community Walker et al. In some cases in Austria a lack of trust in the competencies of local farmers led to co-operations with regional energy utilities Weiss, Problems may arise from conflicts over control between the municipality and citizen groups Karner et al. They present a survey conducted among rural landowners in two regions of New Zealand covering attitudes towards large-scale and small-scale wind power development.
In accordance with findings from other international studies as the authors note results indicate that landowners are significantly more positive towards small- scale wind. Furthermore, the authors also discuss potential benefits of community ownership of wind power. Devine-Wright investigates support for local involvement in relation to a planned community based wind energy project and the socio-demographic factors relevant to these beliefs no indication whether the planned project has been realized.
He finds a high level of support for wind energy development embedded in the local community specifically for development in partnership with local community, local use of energy produced, profits put back into local community. Slightly lower levels of support were present for local ownership, but still a majority of respondents were in favour of such a model. Only weak socio- demographic effects could be found.
Findings show that support for community energy project was more widespread than the desire to participate and indicate popularity of low-level participation. Most frequent reasons for people not wanting to participate include lack of time, interest or ability. Expected benefits can be grouped into social, environmental and economic aspects. Social aspects are strongest, in particular the aim to strengthen the community.
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Attitudes towards actual community based projects Maruyama, Nishikido and Iida present a study on attitudes towards and motivations for non- participation in three community wind projects in Japan Hokkaido, Aomori and Akita. The authors point to the importance of a sense of ownership which is provided for in these examples by the possibility for small investors to have their name inscribed on the tower. The relevance of these factors varies between different investor groups for different community projects.
Overall the authors conclude that wind power offers incentives for different actors that are mutually complementary. Warren and McFayden present a questionnaire based case study comparing attitudes of residents around a community owned and a developer-owned wind farm in Scotland.